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    Energy class layer produced by EMODnet Seabed Habitats as an input layer for the 2021 EUSeaMap broad-scale habitat model. The extent of the mapped area includes the Baltic Sea, and areas of the North Eastern Atlantic and Arctic extending from the Canary Islands in the south to Norway in the North. The map of energy classes was produced using underlying wave and current data and thresholds derived from statistical analyses or expert judgement on known conditions. This layer is the same as the input used in EUSeaMap 2019. A report on the methods used in the 2021 version of EUSeaMap (Vasquez et al., 2021) and reports on previous versions (v2016 and V2019) are linked in Online Resources.

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    Confidence in the classification of energy level in the EUSeaMap (2021) broad-scale predictive habitat map. Values are on a range from 1 (Low confidence) to 3 (High confidence). Energy level is one of the layers of information used to categorise physical habitat types in EUSeaMap; these layers of information are collectively known as 'habitat descriptors'. Confidence in the classification of an energy level at any location is driven by both the confidence in the values of the input variables, and the confidence in the classification based on proximity to, and uncertainty in, the boundary between classes (i.e. areas closer to a boundary between two classes will have lower confidence). Layers are also available showing confidence in the values of the input variables used to model energy levels (kinetic energy at the seabed and wave exposure). A report on the methods used in the 2021 version of EUSeaMap (Vasquez et al., 2021) and reports on previous versions (v2016 and V2019) are linked in Online Resources. Created by the EMODnet Seabed Habitats project consortium.

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    Confidence in the classification of the EUNIS 2007 habitat types in the EUSeaMap (2021) broad-scale predictive habitat map. Values are 1 (low confidence), 2 (moderate confidence) or 3 (high confidence). The final habitat type is classified by overlaying several layers of information; these layers of information are collectively known as 'habitat descriptors'. Habitat descriptors differ per region but include: Biological zone Energy class Oxygen regime Salinity regime Seabed substrate Riverine input The confidence in the classification of the habitat type is taken as the minimum of the confidence in all of the relevant habitat descriptors at that location. Confidence values are also available for each habitat descriptor and input data layer. Detailed information on the modelling process is found in the EMODnet Seabed Habitats technical reports and its appendices (links in Resources). Created by the EMODnet Seabed Habitats project consortium. Credit: Licensed under CC-BY 4.0 from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Seabed Habitats initiative (www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu), funded by the European Commission. It is important to note that a habitat type confidence score is only relevant to that particular level of the classification system. For example, a cell of A3.1 high energy infralittoral rock with ‘low’ energy class confidence, ‘moderate’ biozone confidence and ‘high’ substrate type confidence would have an overall ‘low’ confidence. However, moving up the hierarchy to EUNIS level two (A3 infralittoral rock) removes the energy class; therefore, the confidence of the EUNIS level two habitat type would only consider the ‘moderate’ biozone confidence and ‘high’ substrate type confidence, resulting in an overall ‘moderate’ confidence.

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    Arctic mask shapefile produced by EMODnet Seabed Habitats as an input layer for the 2021 EUSeaMap broad-scale habitat model. Used in as a proxy to delimit the Arctic zone and it is used to classify shallow habitats into Arctic habitat classes as required by the EUNIS (V. 2019) habitat classification. The masks covers areas in the Barents Sea which are North of the polar front or where ice concentration exceeded 20% on average in 2018. The 20% threshold was derived from WMO ice classification and corresponds to "Very open drift ice". Created by the EMODnet Seabed Habitats project consortium. A report on the methods used in the 2021 version of EUSeaMap (Vasquez et al., 2021) and reports on previous versions (v2016 and V2019) are linked in Online Resources. Credit: Licensed under CC-BY 4.0 from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Seabed Habitats initiative (www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu), funded by the European Commission.

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    Predictive Biological Zone layer produced by EMODnet Seabed Habitats as an input layer for the 2021 EUSeaMap broad-scale habitat model. The extent of the mapped area includes the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, and areas of the North Eastern Atlantic extending from the Canary Islands in the south to the Barents Sea in the North. The map of biological zone was produced using underlying physical data and thresholds derived from statistical analyses or expert judgement on known conditions. The model is produced in R and Arc Model Builder (10.1). The model was created using raster input layers with a cell size of 0.00104dd (roughly 100 meters). The model includes the sublittoral zone only (Infralittoral to Abyssal zone). An accompanying confidence layer is available for viewing and download from EMODnet Seabed Habitats. Reports detailing the methods used in the previous versions of EUSeaMap (v2016 and V2019) are linked in online resources a new report is in progress. Populus J. And Vasquez M. (Eds), 2017. EUSeaMap, a European broad-scale seabed habitat map. Ifremer Available from: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00388/49975/ Vasquez M., Manca E., Inghilesi R., Martin, S., Agnesi S., Al Hamdani Z., Annunziatellis A., Bekkby T., Pesch R., Askew A., Bentes L., Castle L., Doncheva V., Drakopoulou V., Gonçalves J., Laamanen L., Lillis H., Loukaidi V., McGrath F., Mo G., Monteiro P., Muresan M., O'Keeffe E., Populus J., Pinder J., Ridgeway A., Sakellariou D., Simboura M., Teaca A., Tempera, F., Todorova V., Tunesi L. and Virtanen E. EUSeaMap 2019, A European broad-scale seabed habitat map, Technical Report, 2019. Available from: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00636/74782/ Credit: Licensed under CC-BY 4.0 from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Seabed Habitats initiative (www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu), funded by the European Commission.

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    Shapefile showing areas where ice concentration in the Barents Sea in 2018 was on average more than 20%. The 20% threshold was derived from WMO ice classification and corresponds to "Very open drift ice". Data averaged by Ifremer and NIVA derived from CMEMS (Copernicus) ice concentration product (resolution 1km, temporal resolution 1 year- 2018). Used in EUSeaMap 2021 to create the Arctic mask layer as an input layer for the 2021 EUSeaMap broad-scale habitat model Created by the EMODnet Seabed Habitats project consortium. A report on the methods used in the 2021 version of EUSeaMap (Vasquez et al., 2021) and reports on previous versions (v2016 and V2019) are linked in Online Resources. Credit: Licensed under CC-BY 4.0 from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Seabed Habitats initiative (www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu), funded by the European Commission.

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    Output of the 2021 EUSeaMap broad-scale predictive model, produced by EMODnet Seabed Habitats. The extent of the mapped area includes the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, and areas of the North Eastern Atlantic extending from the Canary Islands in the south to the Barents Sea in the north. The map was produced using a "top-down" modelling approach using classified habitat descriptors to determine a final output habitat. Habitat descriptors differ per region but include: Biological zone Energy class Oxygen regime Salinity regime Seabed substrate Riverine input Habitat descriptors (excepting Substrate) are calculated using underlying physical data and thresholds derived from statistical analyses or expert judgement on known conditions. The model is produced using R and Arc Model Builder (10.1). The model was created using raster input layers with a cell size of 0.00104dd (roughly 100 metres). The model includes the sublittoral zone only; due to the high variability of the littoral zone, a lack of detailed substrate data and the resolution of the model, it is difficult to predict littoral habitats at this scale. EUSeaMap is classified into EUNIS 2019 level 3 (or more detailed levels where appropriate), EUNIS 2019 level 2 , EUNIS 2007-2011, the MSFD benthic broad habitat types, the HELCOM HUB classification in the Baltic, and the recently revised habitat classification in the Mediterranean. In the Black Sea, EUSeaMap is not classified into EUNIS 2007-2011 (due to inapplicability), but is classified according to a classification that was developed by EMODnet Seabed Habitats (Populus et a, 2017, and for a revised version Vasquez et al, 2020, See Online resources). Reports that provide methods used for the classification of the predicted habitats into the new 2019 EUNIS classification, regional classifications, and MSFD BBHT (v.2017) are linked in Online Resources. A report on the methods used in the 2021 version of EUSeaMap (Vasquez et al., 2021) and reports on previous versions (v2016 and V2019) are linked in Online Resources. Credit: Licensed under CC-BY 4.0 from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Seabed Habitats initiative (www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu), funded by the European Commission.

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    Confidence in the classification of: - the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Benthic Broad Habitat Types (V. 2017) - the EUNIS 2019 habitat types - the Helcom Hub regional classification system habitat types - the Barcelona Convention classification system habitat types in the EUSeaMap (2021) broad-scale predictive habitat map. Values are 1 (low confidence), 2 (moderate confidence) or 3 (high confidence). The final habitat type is classified by overlaying several layers of information; these layers of information are collectively known as 'habitat descriptors'. Habitat descriptors differ per region but include: Biological zone Energy class Oxygen regime Salinity regime Seabed substrate Riverine input The confidence in the classification of the habitat type is taken as the minimum of the confidence in all of the relevant habitat descriptors at that location. Confidence values are also available for each habitat descriptor and input data layer. Detailed information on the modelling process is found in the EMODnet Seabed Habitats technical reports and appendices (links in Resources). A link to the correlation table between MSFD Benthic Broad Habitat types* and the EUSeaMap 2016 biozone and substrate types is available in Resources. *Marine Strategy Framework Directive Benthic Broad Habitat Types (V. 2017) are defined in: COMMISSION DECISION (EU) 2017/848 of 17 May 2017 Created by the EMODnet Seabed Habitats project consortium. Credit: Licensed under CC-BY 4.0 from the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Seabed Habitats initiative (www.emodnet-seabedhabitats.eu), funded by the European Commission. It is important to note that a habitat type confidence score is only relevant to that particular level of the classification system.

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    Confidence in the classification of biological zones in the EUSeaMap (2021) broad-scale predictive habitat map. Values are on a range from 1 (Low confidence) to 3 (High confidence). Biological Zone is one of the layers of information used to categorise physical habitat types in EUSeaMap; these layers of information are collectively known as 'habitat descriptors'. Confidence in the classification of a Biological Zone at any location is driven by both the confidence in the values of the input variables, and the confidence in the classification based on proximity to, and uncertainty in, the boundary between classes (i.e. areas closer to a boundary between two classes will have lower confidence). Layers are also available showing confidence in the values of the input variables used to model Biological Zones. Detailed information on the modelling process is found in the EMODnet Seabed Habitats technical reports and its appendices (links in Resources). Created by the EMODnet Seabed Habitats project consortium.

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    Energy class layer produced by EMODnet Seabed Habitats as an input layer for the 2019 EUSeaMap broad-scale habitat model. The extent of the mapped area includes the Baltic Sea, and areas of the North Eastern Atlantic and Arctic extending from the Canary Islands in the south to Norway in the North. The map of energy classes was produced using underlying wave and current data and thresholds derived from statistical analyses or expert judgement on known conditions. Detailed information on the modelling process for the 2016 is found in the EMODnet Seabed Habitats technical report and its appendices (Populus et al, 2017, link in Resources). We are working on an updated report for the 2019 version.