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    UKSeaMap 2016 has been generated by JNCC and is a by-product of the 2013-2016 activities of the EMODnet Seabed Habitats 2013-2016 consortium. It is a composite of two broad-scale habitat maps, arranged in the following priority order: 1. A roughly 100 m* resolution broad-scale habitat map, which covers the majority of the UK shelf area. 2. EUSeaMap 2016, a coarser resolution** broad-scale habitat map, which covers all European seas (view/download on the EMODnet Seabed Habitats interactive map). Both of these datasets have been created using identical methods; the only difference is in the resolution of the seabed substrate input data and the source and resolution of the depth data. Classification systems: EUNIS habitat classification system, with additional deep sea zones MSFD predominant habitats The Marine Habitat Classification for Britain and Ireland Input data layers: Seabed substrate type Depth to the seabed Amount of light reaching the seabed Wave disturbance at the seabed Kinetic energy at the seabed caused by tidal currents and waves Outputs: Predictive seabed habitat map Confidence layers The map follows the EUNIS 2007-11 classification system where it is appropriate.

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    EUNIS 2007-11 habitat map created from data collected on the CEND2213 2013/11/04 survey to North Norfolk Sandbank and Saturn Reef. Sublittoral sediments defined using acoustic and groundtruth data. Survey Techniques: 40 transects. Sidescan sonar and multibeam echosounder, dropcam video tows and still photography. Infaunal sample and particle size analysis (PSA) carried out on 0.1m2 Hamon grab samples. The habitat map was produced using EUNIS classes obtained from PSA data and interpretations from still images, to inform the semi-automated object-based imagery analysis (OBIA). The OBIA divides the bathymetry and backscatter data into meaningful objects based on their spectral and spatial characteristics, which can then be classified using the ground-truthed data.

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    This dataset shows broad marine habitats in Kinsale Harbour and outer coastal area. The map was made from an interpretation of multibeam acoustic imagery and groundtruthed using sediment samples. The MBES data and sediment samples were collected as part of the Irish national seabed mapping programme - INFOMAR.

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    This dataset shows broad marine habitats in Broadhaven Bay. The map was made from an interpretation of multibeam acoustic imagery and groundtruthed using sediment samples. The MBES data and sediment samples were collected as part of the Irish national seabed mapping programme - INFOMAR.

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    This dataset shows broad marine habitats in Cork Harbour. The map was made from an interpretation of multibeam acoustic imagery and groundtruthed using sediment samples. The MBES data and sediment samples were collected as part of the Irish national seabed mapping programme - INFOMAR.

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    Habitat map created from data collected on the NLV Polestar 2012 survey to Stanton Banks. Sublittoral sediments defined using acoustic and groundtruth data. Initially classified in the MNCR system and subsequently translated in to EUNIS 20017-11. Survey Techniques: Multibeam echosounder, dropcam video tows and still photography. Infaunal sample and particle size analysis (PSA) carried out on 0.1m2 Day grab samples. The habitat map was produced using EUNIS classes obtained from PSA data and interpretations from still images.

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    Habitat map created from data collected on the RV Cefas Endeavour CEND19x12 2012 survey to Braemar Pockmarks SAC. Sublittoral sediments defined using acoustic and groundtruth data. Classified in EUNIS 20017-11. Survey Techniques: Multibeam echosounder, sidescan sonar, dropcam video tows and still photography. Infaunal sample and particle size analysis (PSA) carried out on 0.1m2 Day and Hamon grab samples. The habitat map was produced using EUNIS classes obtained from PSA data and interpretations from still images.

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    Habitat map created from data collected on the RV Cefas Endeavour CEND19x12 2012 survey to Scanner Pockmark SAC. Sublittoral sediments defined using acoustic and groundtruth data. Classified in EUNIS 20017-11. Survey Techniques: Multibeam echosounder, sidescan sonar, dropcam video tows and still photography. Infaunal sample and particle size analysis (PSA) carried out on 0.1m2 Day and Hamon grab samples. The habitat map was produced using EUNIS classes obtained from PSA data and interpretations from still images.

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    Energy class layer produced by EMODnet Seabed Habitats as an input layer for the 2021 EUSeaMap broad-scale habitat model. The extent of the mapped area includes the Baltic Sea, and areas of the North Eastern Atlantic and Arctic extending from the Canary Islands in the south to Norway in the North. The map of energy classes was produced using underlying wave and current data and thresholds derived from statistical analyses or expert judgement on known conditions. This layer is the same as the input used in EUSeaMap 2019. A report on the methods used in the 2021 version of EUSeaMap (Vasquez et al., 2021) and reports on previous versions (v2016 and V2019) are linked in Online Resources.

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    Confidence in the classification of energy level in the EUSeaMap (2021) broad-scale predictive habitat map. Values are on a range from 1 (Low confidence) to 3 (High confidence). Energy level is one of the layers of information used to categorise physical habitat types in EUSeaMap; these layers of information are collectively known as 'habitat descriptors'. Confidence in the classification of an energy level at any location is driven by both the confidence in the values of the input variables, and the confidence in the classification based on proximity to, and uncertainty in, the boundary between classes (i.e. areas closer to a boundary between two classes will have lower confidence). Layers are also available showing confidence in the values of the input variables used to model energy levels (kinetic energy at the seabed and wave exposure). A report on the methods used in the 2021 version of EUSeaMap (Vasquez et al., 2021) and reports on previous versions (v2016 and V2019) are linked in Online Resources. Created by the EMODnet Seabed Habitats project consortium.