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Energy, Climate change, Environment



The objective was to apply existing Baltic Sea monitoring data and identify their adequacy for establishing time series of:

  • Change in average temperature on a grid over past 10/50/100 years
  • Time series of annual temperature at sea surface and bottom
  • Time-series of average annual internal energy of sea (thermal and kinetic energy)
  • Average extent of ice coverage over past 5/10/50/100 yrs, plotted on maps
  • Total ice cover in sea (kg) over past 100 years plotted as time series
  • Phytoplankton abundance (3species) time series

In order to fulfil the needs of the objectives, relevant data for the target parameters (listed below) was gathered from EMODnet, MyOcean, ICES, HELCOM, national and international projects.

The specific data required for this challenge include:

  • Water temperature including vertical profile measurements in past 100 years (EMODnet-Physics, ICES, SMHI),
  • Blended satellite-in situ sea surface temperature for 1982-2013 (DMI)
  • Multi-decadal NEMO model hindcast of 3D temperature, salinity and currents, 1958-2007 (FMI)
  • Sea ice concentration and coverage/thickness measurements in the past hundred years by Baltic Sea countries (FMI)
  • Time series of 3 popular phytoplankton species in Baltic, based on ICES/HELCOM data

Furthermore, the outcome of the literature survey (work package 1) was used; e.g. to inform what the key data sets are and definitions of terminology.



Finnish Meteorological Institutes
Danish Meteorological Institute
Swdish Meteorological and Hydrological Institution
Tallinn University of Technology